John Milios and Dimitris P. Sotiropoulos
In the contemporary literature and discussions on imperialism one will have difficulty finding theoretical propositions that do not have their roots in classical theories. In the argumentation of this paper we shall embark upon Bukharin’s critique of theories of underconsumption and “surplus capital” (in the context of his polemic with Luxemburg) and Lenin’s theory on the imperialist chain as critique of the theory of global capitalism (whose point of departure was his intervention on the national question and the socialist revolution). We shall argue that these disputes have theoretical implications which challenge the main insights of the classical approaches inviting us to think imperialism from a different standpoint.
Key words: Imperialism, Lenin, Bukharin, Marx, Imperialist Chain.
The issue of the fight against terrorism dominates the world politics. Most of the research and dialogue when focusing upon the empirical side of the issue overlooks the importance of theory. This paper endeavors to understand the fight against terrorism in the light of the Deleuzian theory of capitalism. Deleuze gives an excellent account of capitalism as an immanent axiomatic system. It explains how a capitalist state, such as the US, understands the threat, i.e. terrorism, and deals with it. The capitalist state’s obsession with money makes it vulnerable to what Deleuze calls molecular forces, such as Al Qaeda, Taliban and schizoid. These forces become catastrophic to the capitalist state when they start operating on supple segmentarity. Islam, being an element of war machine in the Deleuzian analysis, pushes the extremist groups to wage a total war, the absolute destruction of both economy and society as a whole. The factors dragging the state or the groups towards total war are closer to capitalism than to these extremist groups. So if these groups, if at any stage, unfortunately become successful in disrupting the axiomatic functioning of capitalism they will undoubtedly push the US to total war of which the signs are getting visible. It may lead to absolute destruction.
Key Words: Capitalism, Terrorism, Axioms, Codes, Rigid and Supple Segmentarity, Molar and Molecular Entity
Özgür Ünal Eriş and Selcen Öner
This article aims to compare transformative power of European Union (EU) through its enlargement policy and European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP). Their goals, instruments and influences on a candidate country (Turkey) and an eastern neighbour of the EU (Ukraine) are compared. Because of the membership perspective, Europeanization through the accession process is much more influential than Europeanization of neighbourhood of EU through ENP. There has been interplay of domestic and external factors which have influenced transformative power of EU on Turkey and Ukraine.
Keywords: European Union (EU), European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP), EU Enlargement, Conditionality, Orange Revolution
Despite the simplicity of its objectives, Realism has proved difficult to apply, all the more so once the military option is undertaken. The chief advantage of Realism is its confrontation of the facts, especially the costs of war. It seems therefore that, for all its acceptance of the harsh realities of the world of Nation-States, Realism is not only a more successful way to account for the behavior of Nation-States; it may be a preferable way to formulate policy. Not only does it focus on achievable goals, by focusing on the facts and appreciating the limited ability of dealing with them, it weighs the costs of desirable outcomes. This may not be a very thrilling way to deal with the problems of the world. But it does promise to be far less destructive than its more radical, read “Idealistic” alternatives.
Key Words: Realism, Idealism, Cold War, Neo-conservative Idealism, Gulf War, Vietnam War
The present crisis has started
in the core economies – particularly the USA and UK – and has affected all of
the periphery. However, the impact of the crisis on the periphery has been very
uneven. While China still recorded strong growth, some East European economies
collapsed. The very uneven impact of the crisis has its roots in differing
pre-crisis models of accumulation and different forms of insertion into the
international economy. The article will highlight the links between pre-crisis
models of accumulation, transmission channels of crisis and crisis processes in
the periphery. After providing a theoretical framework on models of
accumulation, it will analyse three development models and the impact of the
present crisis on them: dependent financialisation (Eastern Europe/Turkey), raw
material export-orientation (Sub-Saharan Africa, Middle East), export
industrialisation (China), raw material exports plus inward looking
industrialisation (Argentina/Brazil). Thus, the focus will be primarily on the
partially industrialised semi-periphery.
Keywords: Dependent Financialisation, Crisis Models of Accumulation, Export Industralisation, In-ward Industralisation, Uneven Development
This paper seeks to draw out an
understanding of the role of the shift to the social or societal sphere in
international statebuilding discourses. It suggests that this shift can be
broadly located as taking place in the last years of the 1990s, with greater
disillusionment with institutionalist approaches suggesting that Western or
international actors could resolve problems of development, democracy and peace
through the export of liberal institutions. As we have shifted away from ideas
of “quick fixes”, “early exits” and understandings of the ease with which
liberal values and institutions can be exported, so we have discovered the
importance of society or of local agency on the ground. It is suggested here
that this greater sensitivity to the “limits of liberalism” has facilitated a
greater focus on the agency and choice-making of the subaltern subjects of
international statebuilding. However, this focus on the agency of the
non-Western or post-conflict “Other” has merely facilitated the evasion of
Western responsibility for the outcomes of statebuilding interventions as well
as providing a framework enabling more intrusive intervention, operating
precisely upon this agency and its societal influences.
Keywords: Civil society, International State building, Society-based Approaches to Intervention, Culture and Development, Problem of Autonomy